The Prevention of the Communicable Diseases
The World Health Organization (WHO) in 1985 released an ambitious project, aimed to eliminate infectious diseases in Europe by 2000 such as measles, diphtheria, congenital rubella, pertussis and neonatal tetanus and to overcome polio by 1988 world-wide. However, the experience had shown that ambitions were made too quickly. There was a lack of evaluation that an infectious diseases are the unified whole of the human and the micro-biological systems that are affected by an external and internal factors.
Communicable diseases is an infectious disease caused by various micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa) that entered and spreaded in the body. Many scientists believe that micro-organisms are the oldest "population" on Earth.
Agents of the disease invades the human body, multiplies and causes the illness, then it can be transmitted into the environment and infect others. These diseases can spread from one person or animal to another, and the massive spread of an illness is called epidemic.
In order for disease to spread the necessary components are needed: the source of an infection (a sick person, animal, asymptomatic vector), pathways through which the disease is being spread (air, fecal, oral, transmissive, tactical) and susceptible people and animals that can infected with the disease.
One of the most common infectious diseases in the world is malaria that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemiologists also emphasize the hepatitis B and C, influenza, helminthiasis, which affect millions of people.
In a changing world, diseases and their agents also changes that is why WHO in 2006 published a new definition of infectious diseases. New infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic factors or existing parasites that through evolution acquired new properties. The phenomenon of the Infectious diseases change is not new, but over the last 50 years, new diseases are discovered vastly. An increase of 4 times has been detected in the last 25 years. Not only the agents of diseases had changed, but also the vectors (eg . ticks, mosquitoes).
Nowadays, the most common and major socio-economic costs causing infections are: Chikungunya, Ebola fever, avian and swine flu, HIV, West Nile fever and others.
One of the most effective forms of prevention is vaccination. Other effective means are environmental sanitation improvement, water and food quality supervision and control of the population hygiene habits, healthy work place. All of them have helped to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases in developed countries. However, micro-world provides surprises daily, that is why we have to put an effort in order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases.